Nutrition & Health Benefits
There is considerable research currently aimed at determining the health benefits of Australian Sweet Lupin by dieticians and medical scientists in Europe and Australia. Much of the impetus for this came from the increasing understanding of the health benefits of another legume, the soybean. There is supportive scientific evidence that consuming Australian Sweet Lupin enriched foods have the following healthy benefits:
Low GI (Glyceamic Index)
The Australian Sweet Lupin is high in protein (30% lupin seed, 40% lupin flour) like soybean but is significantly higher in dietary fibre (30%) and lower in oil (6%) and contains minimal starch. It therefore has a very low GI, which has significant implications for modern societies with an increasing incidence of obesity and associated risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Lupins (Australian Sweet Lupin & L. albus) have the lowest GI of any commonly consumed grains.
Low GI foods are known to:Lower post-digestion glucose rise
- Reduce daily mean insulin levels
- Lower total and LDL cholesterol levels
- Reduce liver cholesterol synthesis
- Decrease serum Apolipoprotein B levels
- Decrease 24h urinary C-peptide output
- Higher satiety rating, control appetite
For information on Glycemic index visit the website: www.glycemicindex.com
Beneficially influence satiety (appetite suppression) and energy balance
A study by Archer et al (2004) achieved a 37 per cent reduction in the fat content of sausage patties by replacing meat fat with lupin fibre. The subjects ate fewer kilojoules at the test breakfast but maintained that lowered kilojoule intake for the remainder of the day.
A second study by Ya P Lee et al (2006) found that bread enriched with lupin kernel flour at the expense of wheat flour reduced energy intake and increased the feeling of fullness. Subjects on the lupin bread ate at least 20% less.
Beneficially influence glycemic control
Hall et al (2005) found that Australian Sweet Lupin kernel flour inclusion into white bread significantly reduced the blood glucose response and the insulin response of the 11 male test subjects.
Improve blood lipids
Lupin fibre acts as a soluble fibre and drops the total cholesterol without affecting the HDL cholesterol. A cross over study by Hall et al (2005) involving 38 men each eating a control diet and then a diet of food products enriched with Australian sweet lupin fibre for a month found, that the lupin-enriched diet lowered total blood cholesterol by 4.5 per cent and the bad LDL cholesterol by 5.4 per cent
Lower hypertension (Blood pressure)
Lupins are one of the largest natural sources of the amino acid arginine which has been implicated in having beneficial effects on endothelial function (improved blood vessel performance). Pilvi et al (2006) found lupin inclusion in the diet had a protective effect by normalizing vascular function of salt loaded rats.
Pre-biotic for improved bowel health
Johnson et al (2006) and Smith et al (2006) found that Australian Sweet Lupin foods reduce transit time, lower the colon pH (anti cancer) and act as a 'pre-biotic' therefore are potentially very beneficial for bowel health.
Improve bowel health
Lupins are gluten free and are therefore potentially suitable for people with coeliac disease. www.coeliac.org.au
In Western Australia, government policy ensures that the Australian Sweet Lupin is totally free from GMO.
An allergy caution
The consumption of or contact with the Australian Sweet Lupin, like other legume crops such as peanuts and soybean, may cause allergy reactions (including anaphylactic shock) in some individuals, although such incidents are rare. Products made with Australian Sweet Lupin should carry an allergy warning.
Archer, BJ et al. (2004) Effect of fat replacement by inulin or lupin-kernel fibre on sausage patty acceptability, post-meal perceptions of satiety and food intake in men. British Journal Nutrition 91: 591-599. Ya P Lee et al (2006) Lupin-enriched bread increases satiety and reduces energy intake acutely Lee et al. Am J Clin Nutr.2006; 84: 975-980
Hall, R. S., et al. (2005) Australian sweet lupin flour addition reduced the glycaemic index of a white bread breakfast without affecting palatability in healthy human volunteers. Asia Pacific J. Clinical Nutrition 14: 91-97
Hall, R. S., Johnson, S. K., Baxter, A. L. and Ball, M. J. (2005) Lupin kernel fibre-enriched foods beneficially modify serum lipids in men. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 59: 325-33.
Pilvi TK, et al (2006) Lupin protein attenuates the development of hypertension and normalises the vascular function of NaCl-loaded Goto-Kakizaki rats. J Physiol Pharmacol. 57(2):167-76.
Johnson SK, Chua V, Hall RS, Baxter AL. (2006) Lupin kernel fibre foods improve bowel function and beneficially modify some putative faecal risk factors for colon cancer in men. British Journal of Nutrition 95(2): 372-8.
Smith SC et al (2006) Lupin kernel fiber consumption modifies fecal microbiota in healthy men as determined by rRNA gene fluorescent in situ hybridization. Eur J Nutr. 2006 Sep; 45 (6):335-41