Australian Sweet Lupins have been shown to be an excellent substrate for both bacterial and fungal fermentations, used in making foods such as tempe, miso and traditional soy sauces.
Tempe: Australian Sweet Lupin was first reported to be suitable for tempe production by Kidby et al. (1977). Hung et al. (1990) later found them to be a better substrate than soya beans for fermentation, due to greater breakdown of the proteins and complex carbohydrates into simpler and more digestible structures.
Miso: Coffey (1989) reported that an expert panel of Japanese found Australian Sweet Lupin miso to be equally acceptable as soy miso for flavour and texture and more acceptable in colour and overall appearance. Cunha et al (1990) also investigated the potential for miso production from lupins (L. albus).
Sauces: Australian Sweet Lupin could be used to make sauces similar in flavour and texture to the traditional soy sauces of Japan (Worm and Beira da Costa, 1990) and China (Hung et al., 1990). Lee, Oh and Kim (1982) found L. angustifolius a better substrate than soya beans for fermentation of A. oryzae to make Korean paste and sauce.
Cunha, A.C. and Beira da Costa, M.L. (1990). Lupinus luteus as a potential raw material for miso production. Abstracts of Poceedings 6th International Lupin Conference, Temuco-Pucon, November 1990. Ed. D. von Baer, Associacion Chilena del Lupino, Temuco, Chile, p. 32.
Coffey, R.S. (1989). Lupins as an energy-rich protein source for feed and food. In: T.H. Applewhite (Ed.). Proceedings of the World Congress on Vegetable Protein Utilisation in Human Foods and Animal Feedstuffs. American Oil Chemists’ Society, Champaign, Illinois. pp. 410-414.
Hung, T.V., Papolais, M., Nithianandan, V., Jiang, H.H. and Versteeg, K. (1990). Utilisation of lupin seeds for human consumption. ‘Food Pacific’ Convention, Gold Coast, May 1990, pp. 13-15. Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology, Australia.
Kidby, D., McComb, J.R., Snowden, R.L., Garcia-Webb, P. and Gladstones, J.S. (1977). Tempe production from Lupinus angustifolius L.. Symposium on indigenous fermented foods, Bangkok, Thailand, November 1977, UNEP/UNESCO/ICRO.
Lee, C.H., Oh, S.H. and Kim, C.S. (1982). Studies on the fermentation of lupin seed. I. Determination of the growth rate of Aspergillus oryzae on beans. Korean Journal of Applied Microbiology and Bioengineering 10: 227-232.
Worm, M.A. and Beirao de Costa, M.L. (1990). Lupin as a raw material for shoyu production. In: D. von Baer (Ed.) Proceedings 6th International Lupin Conference, Temuco-Pucon, November 1990, 60-67. Associacion Chilena del Lupino, Temuco.