Breads, Biscuits & Cakes
Up to about 20% lupin (Australian Sweet Lupin & L. albus) flour can be mixed in with wheat or wholemeal flours to make a more nutritious bread. The blend of cereal and legume helps to balance out the amino acid profile and make it a more complete food. It is generally observed that adding more than about 5% into most wheat flours results in a slight loss of loaf volume, because lupin proteins lack the strength and elasticity of wheat gluten (Lucisano and Pompeii, 1981;). When stronger flours, e.g. hard red wheat from Canada, are used it is possible to add 15% lupin flour and still retain loaf integrity and a high quality product. There is an increase in water-holding capacity and the texture, flavour and yellow colour of the lupin-wheat flour is appealing to many consumers (Petterson and Crosbie; 1990).
In Australia, some bread manufacturers use lupin hull flour in high fibre breads. A lupin loaf which contains about 30% kernel flour, and is free of wheat gluten, is on sale in some States; and a wheaten bread with 5-10% lupin kernel flour is also available. Ultrafine kernel flour has an attractive yellow colour, good dispersion in aqueous systems and good emulsifying properties, and in France one company produces lupin kernel and hull flours for the bakery trade (Terrena).
Camacho et al. (1989) found that adding up to 12% lupin flour (L. albus) to maize flour for production of humitas, a traditional Chilean food, had adverse effects on sensory qualities. It did however improve the biological value of the protein. Best overall effects were with an 8% inclusion rate.
Lucisano, M. and Pompei, C. (1981). Baking properties of lupin flour. Food Science 14:323-6.
Petterson, D.S., Crosbie, G.B., (1990). Potential for lupins as food for humans. Food Australia 42, 266-268
Camacho, L., Banados, E., Fernandez, E. (1989). Canned ‘humitas’ prepared from opaque-2 maize with sweet lupin (Lupinus albus var. Multolupa), nutritional and quality changes. Archivos Lantinoamericanos de Nutricion 39: 185-199.